Browse Source

Updated vertebrate intro

main
Kenneth John Odle 3 months ago
parent
commit
bb476567f6
  1. 20
      michigan-animals.tex

20
michigan-animals.tex

@ -11,6 +11,8 @@
\usepackage{microtype}
% \raggedright
% Change the font
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage{tgtermes}
@ -41,18 +43,22 @@
\tableofcontents
\kar
\section{Introduction}
\section{Vertebrates}
\kal{20}{20}
Vertebrates are animals with backbones. The subphylum Vertebrata is contained in the phylum Chordata, which also includes lancelets (small, jawless, fish-like creatures) and tunicates (small ocean-dwelling creatures that are sessile in their adult forms).
Vertebrates are animals with backbones. The subphylum Vertebrata is contained in the phylum Chordata, which also includes lancelets (small, jawless, fish-like creatures) and tunicates (small ocean-dwelling creatures that are sessile in their adult forms). Because these are ocean-dwelling animals that are rarely seen and largely unknown by the public, we typically divide animals into vertebrates and non-vertebrates, but that leaves out these two groups. But we should always keep in mind that the basic distinction we should make is between chordates and non-chordates.
Vertebrates can be separated into two broad groups: agnathans, or jawless vertebrates such as hagfish and lampreys, and gnathostomes, jawed vertebrates. Gnathostomes can be into three extant groups: Chondrichthyes, Ostichthyes, and Tetrapoda.
Vertebrates can be separated into two broad groups: agnathans, or jawless vertebrates such as hagfish and lampreys, and gnathostomes, or the jawed vertebrates. Gnathostomes can be classified into three extant groups: Chondrichthyes, Ostichthyes, and Tetrapoda.
Chondrichthyes are the cartilaginous fishes, which include sharks, rays, skates, and chimaeras. They are jawed fish with pairs fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with chambers in a series, and skeletons made out of cartilage, rather than bone.
Chondrichthyes are the cartilaginous fishes, which include sharks, rays, skates, and chimaeras. They are jawed fish with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with chambers in a series, and skeletons made out of cartilage, rather than bone.
Osteichthyes are the bony fishes, which are similar to the Chondrichthyes in many ways, but have skeletons made of bone, rather than cartilage. They are an extremely diverse and abundant group around the world.
Tetrapoda are the group of all four-limbed vertebrates, including amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The tetrapods evolved from the lobe-finned fishes during the Devonian period, approximately 395 million years ago. Some members of the group have lost one or both pairs of limbs (some lizards and snakes), while in the birds, the front pair of limbs have evolved into wings.
Tetrapoda are the group of all four-limbed vertebrates, including amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The tetrapods evolved from the lobe-finned fishes during the Devonian period, approximately 395 million years ago. Some members, such as snakes and some lizards, of the group have lost one or both pairs of limbs, while in the birds, the front pair of limbs have evolved into wings.
Tetrapods have evolved into four major groups: amphibians (class Amphibia), reptiles (class Reptilia), birds (class Aves), and mammals (class mammalia).
\kar{}
\subsection{Class Mammalia}
@ -87,4 +93,10 @@ Tetrapoda are the group of all four-limbed vertebrates, including amphibians, re
\section{Invertebrates}
\section{Glossary}
\begin{description}
\item[nares] nostrils
\end{description}
\end{document}
Loading…
Cancel
Save