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.\" DO NOT MODIFY THIS FILE! It was generated by help2man 1.47.3.
.TH LS "1" "September 2019" "GNU coreutils 8.30" "User Commands"
ls \- list directory contents
.B ls
[\fI\,OPTION\/\fR]... [\fI\,FILE\/\fR]...
.\" Add any additional description here
List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if none of \fB\-cftuvSUX\fR nor \fB\-\-sort\fR is specified.
Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
\fB\-a\fR, \fB\-\-all\fR
do not ignore entries starting with .
\fB\-A\fR, \fB\-\-almost\-all\fR
do not list implied . and ..
with \fB\-l\fR, print the author of each file
\fB\-b\fR, \fB\-\-escape\fR
print C\-style escapes for nongraphic characters
with \fB\-l\fR, scale sizes by SIZE when printing them;
e.g., '\-\-block\-size=M'; see SIZE format below
\fB\-B\fR, \fB\-\-ignore\-backups\fR
do not list implied entries ending with ~
with \fB\-lt\fR: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last
modification of file status information);
with \fB\-l\fR: show ctime and sort by name;
otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first
list entries by columns
colorize the output; WHEN can be 'always' (default
if omitted), 'auto', or 'never'; more info below
\fB\-d\fR, \fB\-\-directory\fR
list directories themselves, not their contents
\fB\-D\fR, \fB\-\-dired\fR
generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode
do not sort, enable \fB\-aU\fR, disable \fB\-ls\fR \fB\-\-color\fR
\fB\-F\fR, \fB\-\-classify\fR
append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
likewise, except do not append '*'
across \fB\-x\fR, commas \fB\-m\fR, horizontal \fB\-x\fR, long \fB\-l\fR,
single\-column \fB\-1\fR, verbose \fB\-l\fR, vertical \fB\-C\fR
like \fB\-l\fR \fB\-\-time\-style\fR=\fI\,full\-iso\/\fR
like \fB\-l\fR, but do not list owner
group directories before files;
can be augmented with a \fB\-\-sort\fR option, but any
use of \fB\-\-sort\fR=\fI\,none\/\fR (\fB\-U\fR) disables grouping
\fB\-G\fR, \fB\-\-no\-group\fR
in a long listing, don't print group names
\fB\-h\fR, \fB\-\-human\-readable\fR
with \fB\-l\fR and \fB\-s\fR, print sizes like 1K 234M 2G etc.
likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
\fB\-H\fR, \fB\-\-dereference\-command\-line\fR
follow symbolic links listed on the command line
follow each command line symbolic link
that points to a directory
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
(overridden by \fB\-a\fR or \fB\-A\fR)
hyperlink file names; WHEN can be 'always'
(default if omitted), 'auto', or 'never'
append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
none (default), slash (\fB\-p\fR),
file\-type (\fB\-\-file\-type\fR), classify (\fB\-F\fR)
\fB\-i\fR, \fB\-\-inode\fR
print the index number of each file
\fB\-I\fR, \fB\-\-ignore\fR=\fI\,PATTERN\/\fR
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
\fB\-k\fR, \fB\-\-kibibytes\fR
default to 1024\-byte blocks for disk usage;
used only with \fB\-s\fR and per directory totals
use a long listing format
\fB\-L\fR, \fB\-\-dereference\fR
when showing file information for a symbolic
link, show information for the file the link
references rather than for the link itself
fill width with a comma separated list of entries
\fB\-n\fR, \fB\-\-numeric\-uid\-gid\fR
like \fB\-l\fR, but list numeric user and group IDs
\fB\-N\fR, \fB\-\-literal\fR
print entry names without quoting
like \fB\-l\fR, but do not list group information
\fB\-p\fR, \fB\-\-indicator\-style\fR=\fI\,slash\/\fR
append / indicator to directories
\fB\-q\fR, \fB\-\-hide\-control\-chars\fR
print ? instead of nongraphic characters
show nongraphic characters as\-is (the default,
unless program is 'ls' and output is a terminal)
\fB\-Q\fR, \fB\-\-quote\-name\fR
enclose entry names in double quotes
use quoting style WORD for entry names:
literal, locale, shell, shell\-always,
shell\-escape, shell\-escape\-always, c, escape
(overrides QUOTING_STYLE environment variable)
\fB\-r\fR, \fB\-\-reverse\fR
reverse order while sorting
\fB\-R\fR, \fB\-\-recursive\fR
list subdirectories recursively
\fB\-s\fR, \fB\-\-size\fR
print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
sort by file size, largest first
sort by WORD instead of name: none (\fB\-U\fR), size (\fB\-S\fR),
time (\fB\-t\fR), version (\fB\-v\fR), extension (\fB\-X\fR)
with \fB\-l\fR, show time as WORD instead of default
modification time: atime or access or use (\fB\-u\fR);
ctime or status (\fB\-c\fR); also use specified time
as sort key if \fB\-\-sort\fR=\fI\,time\/\fR (newest first)
time/date format with \fB\-l\fR; see TIME_STYLE below
sort by modification time, newest first
\fB\-T\fR, \fB\-\-tabsize\fR=\fI\,COLS\/\fR
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
with \fB\-lt\fR: sort by, and show, access time;
with \fB\-l\fR: show access time and sort by name;
otherwise: sort by access time, newest first
do not sort; list entries in directory order
natural sort of (version) numbers within text
\fB\-w\fR, \fB\-\-width\fR=\fI\,COLS\/\fR
set output width to COLS. 0 means no limit
list entries by lines instead of by columns
sort alphabetically by entry extension
\fB\-Z\fR, \fB\-\-context\fR
print any security context of each file
list one file per line. Avoid '\en' with \fB\-q\fR or \fB\-b\fR
display this help and exit
output version information and exit
The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is 10*1024).
Units are K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y (powers of 1024) or KB,MB,... (powers of 1000).
The TIME_STYLE argument can be full\-iso, long\-iso, iso, locale, or +FORMAT.
FORMAT is interpreted like in date(1). If FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2,
then FORMAT1 applies to non\-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files.
TIME_STYLE prefixed with 'posix\-' takes effect only outside the POSIX locale.
Also the TIME_STYLE environment variable sets the default style to use.
Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and
with \fB\-\-color\fR=\fI\,never\/\fR. With \fB\-\-color\fR=\fI\,auto\/\fR, ls emits color codes only when
standard output is connected to a terminal. The LS_COLORS environment
variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.
.SS "Exit status:"
if OK,
if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),
if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command\-line argument).
Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.
GNU coreutils online help: <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
Report ls translation bugs to <https://translationproject.org/team/>
Copyright \(co 2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <https://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
Full documentation at: <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/ls>
or available locally via: info \(aq(coreutils) ls invocation\(aq