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Second proofreading pass; still at 41 pages

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Kenneth John Odle 8 months ago
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      003/codex-003.tex

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003/codex-003.tex

@ -91,6 +91,9 @@
% Cancel units in math mode!
\usepackage{cancel}
% Better control over line-spacing
\usepackage{setspace}
% Use nice fractions
\usepackage{nicefrac}
@ -167,11 +170,11 @@ I wish for the life of me that I remember this experience better. The ``computer
\vspace{-12pt}
\end{wrapfigure}
People didn't really know much about these two mainframe systems, although I remember hearing the few computer people who were around praising the VAX as being far superior to the DEC-10. (A bit of internet research confirms this—the VAX line of mainframes was intended as a replacement for the DEC line of mainframes.) Everything was from the command line. If you saved a file (and I tried for a few weeks to type up some of my notes from class, but quickly realized that this was pointless, as I couldn't take the digital files with me) and wanted to print it, you had to send it to the print queue, and then go to a different room in the building where the line printer was located.
People didn't really know much about these two mainframe systems, although I remember hearing the few computer people who were around praising the VAX as being far superior to the DEC-10. \footnote{A bit of internet research confirms this—the VAX line of mainframes was intended as a replacement for the DEC line of mainframes.} Everything was from the command line. If you saved a file\footnote{I tried for a few weeks to type up some of my notes from class, but quickly realized that this was pointless, as I couldn't take the digital files with me.} and wanted to print it, you had to send it to the print queue, and then go to a different room in the building where the line printer was located.
At this point, it was possible that your printout was ready. But it was also entirely possible that it wouldn't be ready. Everything was printed on unperforated continuous feed paper that was 15 inches wide.\footnote{See the Wikipedia entry on ``'continuous stationery'' to see what I'm talking about.} The problem was someone had to be there to tear off your printout after it was completed—the printers had no way of doing this automatically—take it out of the printer's tray, figure out that it belonged to you, label it with your name, and set it on a shelf for you to pick up later.
And if nobody was there, the printer just kept printing, and someone would have to separate possibly dozens of different print jobs. If your print job was small, it was entirely possible that the person responsible would miss it and it would be stuck on to the end of someone else's print job. If the paper ran out of paper and nobody was there to replace it, your file just went into the printer memory (or somewhere into the ether if the printer's memory was full) until the paper was refilled. Printing anything was a big investment of time and energy (not to mention hope) and I will gladly take the occasional printer jam over that experience any day.
And if nobody was there, the printer just kept printing, and someone would have to separate possibly dozens of different print jobs. If your print job was small, it was entirely possible that the person responsible would miss it and it would end up stuck on the end of someone else's print job. If the printer ran out of paper and nobody was there to replace it, your file just went into the printer memory (or somewhere into the ether if the printer's memory was full) until the paper was refilled. Printing anything was a big investment of time and energy (not to mention hope) and I will gladly take the occasional printer jam over that experience any day.
The only other remarkable thing I remember about that early college experience is that everybody had to take a basic computer course. This was a single, university-level course that all freshmen had to take.
@ -218,7 +221,7 @@ And this worked. My students were not familiar with a ``File'' menu, but they we
I know that the usual dictum is ``show, don't tell''. But what's really happening here is that by \textit{telling} my students, they were then \textit{showing} themselves, and developing some muscle memory along the way.
Although I thoroughly enjoyed teaching this class, nothing good can last forever. A new Republican governor was elected and he slashed funding for community education and adult education programs. (A less-educated populace is easier to control, I guess.) I taught this course for a year, had a great time, and would gladly teach it again, even with the miserable wages. Hell, I'd do it now as a volunteer. Knowledge should be shared, not horded and sold.
Although I thoroughly enjoyed teaching this class, nothing good can last forever. A new Republican governor was elected and he slashed funding for community education and adult education programs.\footnote{He also slashed anything that benefits anyone who isn't wealthy \textit{and} white \textit{and} male. (Mathematically, that would be $wealthy \land white \land male$, with emphasis on the \textit{and}.)} (A less-educated populace is easier to control, I guess.) I taught this course for a year, had a great time, and would gladly teach it again, even with the miserable wages. Hell, I'd do it now as a volunteer. Knowledge should be shared, not horded and sold.
\chapter{Is This Really a Hack? \\(Or is it something even worse?)}
@ -242,14 +245,14 @@ So I decided to attempt this quest again, but instead of cooking hacks, I decide
\item \textbf{Use newspaper as a weed barrier} --- That's right: just lay some newspaper down on the ground, throw some dirt over it, and go to town planting your garden. This is definitely not a hack, it's more like a \textbf{gimmick} that is actually \textbf{really bad advice}. Newspaper will break apart quickly, and is not effective against perennial weeds unless you lay down a really thick later. Besides, the advice was to put dirt \textit{on top of the newspaper}. What's to keep wind-blown seeds from just landing and sprouting on \textit{that} dirt? Save your money and just buy some mulch.
\item \textbf{Use plastic bottles as mini-greenhouses} --- I've seen this so many times and its popularity seems to rely on the fact that people somehow think of greenhouses as magical boxes.\footnote{Clarke's Law applies to greenhouses, apparently.} The point of an actual greenhouse is to let light in. The watering is still up to you. So yeah, you can cut a bottle in half, fill the bottom with soil, plant your seeds, and throw the top on to keep moisture in until the seeds sprout, but it seems to me it would be easier to just plant the seeds in the bottom and make sure to keep them watered. There is nothing magical about a transparent top, and thus this isn't a hack, but a mere \textbf{gimmick}.\footnote{I suppose this is popular because people can then say ``hey, look at me, I'm recycling!'' but you aren't recycling, you're \textit{reusing}. And the end result is a dirty bottle that \textit{can't} be easily recycled.}
\item \textbf{Punch some holes in the cap of a gallon milk jug and use it as a watering can} --- This is definitely a \textbf{gimmick}. Why not just leave the cap off and pour water directly out of the jug the way you do milk? Is that not simpler? The \textit{real} hack is to drill a few small holes in the \textit{bottom} of the jug, fill it water, and set it next to your plants. This is a great way to keep tomatoes and other large plants watered during a hot dry summer without constantly sprinkling them with water.
\item \textbf{Place a kitchen sponge in the bottom of a pot to soak up extra water and avoid root rot} --- The problem with this \textbf{gimmick} is that sponges absorb water and hold onto it until it evaporates (and not a lot of evaporation is going to happen if it's been buried). If you give your potted plant too much water, the ideal situation is to have something large---stones, for instance---that don't lock together that will keep the dirt in while letting the excess water out.\footnote{Or you could just learn how to water your plants properly. I admit to not being an expert at this (ADHD makes tasks like this interesting), but it seems better to err on underwatering, which is easily corrected, rather than overwatering, which is not.}
\item \textbf{Use wine corks with a toothpick as plant labels} --- This \textbf{gimmick} was described as a great way to recycle, but I don't know that our landfills are overflowing with wine corks. Corks are just oak bark, and will naturally, if slowly, break down in the soil or in a compost pile. Just use some popsicle sticks and let the kids use the corks in their craft projects.
\item \textbf{Place a kitchen sponge in the bottom of a pot to soak up extra water and avoid root rot} --- The problem with this \textbf{gimmick} is that sponges absorb water and hold onto it until it evaporates (and not a lot of evaporation is going to happen if it's been buried). If you give your potted plant too much water, the ideal situation is to have something large---stones, for instance---that don't lock together that will keep the dirt in while letting the excess water out.\footnote{Or you could just learn how to water your plants properly. I admit to not being an expert at this (ADHD makes tasks like this interesting), but it seems better to err on underwatering, which is easily corrected, rather than overwatering, which is not.} A sponge will just hold all that extra water, making this \textbf{really bad advice} if you tend to overwater.
\item \textbf{Use wine corks with a toothpick as plant labels} --- This \textbf{gimmick} was described as a great way to recycle, but I don't know that our landfills are overflowing with wine corks. Corks are just oak bark, and will naturally, if slowly, break down in the soil or in a compost pile.\footnote{The assumption that there is an entire privileged class who has so many wine corks that they don't know what to do with them says a lot about the person spouting this ``advice''.} Just use some popsicle sticks and let the kids use the corks in their craft projects.
\item \textbf{Use toilet roll cores as seedling pots} --- Most people just throw out the core from a roll of toilet paper, but this is a true \textbf{hack}, as it uses up something that you are just going to end up throwing in either the trash or the recycling anyway. And it will break down in your soil and add some organic matter, as well.
\item \textbf{Use seeds from store-bought vegetables (e.g., tomatoes and peppers) to start your own garden plants} --- This is just \textbf{bad advice}. Most supermarket vegetables are hybrids anyway, and won't come true from seed. Also, starting plants from seed is really hard work! If you're going to go through all that work, you might as well fork out for some high quality seeds.
\item \textbf{Use ordinary table salt as fertilizer} --- This is just \textbf{really bad advice} because excess levels of salt can damage or even kill most plants. Maybe they were thinking of \textit{Epsom} salts, which can be used as a fertilizer when properly diluted, because it contains high quantities of magnesium. (Nope, they actually list that one further down the list.)
\item \textbf{Make homemade weed killer with vinegar, table salt, and dish soap} --- This one would actually probably work, because again, salt is really bad for plants, and vinegar will kill the leaves. But it won't kill the roots, which is I suppose why they are including salt. Also, in light of the previous ``hack'', is salt going to kill your plants or fertilize them? Leave the salt out and I'd be willing to call this a technique, but I'm not sure why weeds are even a problem, what with that thin layer of newspaper you put down all over the place. Again, this is just \textbf{bad advice}.
\item \textbf{Make fertilizer tea from your weeds to feed your plants} --- This \textbf{gimmick} is just silly: take the weeds that you've just pulled up, put them in a bucket and cover them with water, wait for a few hours, get rid of the weeds and then water your garden with this miraculous, nutrient rich water. For one thing, you're just not going to get that many nutrients out of freshly picked leaves in a few hours. This is more like putting some leafy greens in a water bath to perk them up. Second, you still have to get rid of the weeds. It would make more sense to just put the weeds in a compost pile, which is probably where this idea came from because compost tea is a real thing.\footnote{Although if you're going to go through all the trouble of making compost, you may as well just apply it to the soil and let your garden make its own compost tea every time it rains or you water it. Why are you going through extra steps?}
\item \textbf{Make holes to plant your seeds in by putting corks on the end of a garden fork} --- This is not a hack, it's not a gimmick, nor is even just a ridiculously terrible idea, it's also \textbf{physically impossible}. Most garden forks have tines that almost as wide as a wine cork is, so there's no way you're going to be able to stick a cork on there. (It's notable that even though this ``hack'' was accompanied by a picture of a garden fork stuck in the ground, there was not a wine cork to be seen anywhere.) And even if you could, this would just become bad advice because 1) not all seeds should be planted the same width apart, and 2) how difficult is it to make a hole in your garden soil to drop a seed in there? If your soil is that hard, you've got bigger problems and all the winecorks in the world aren't going to solve them. For what it's worth, here's the entire process, in all it's ridiculous glory:
\item \textbf{Make holes to plant your seeds in by putting corks on the end of a garden fork} --- This is not a hack, it's not a gimmick, nor is it even just a ridiculously terrible idea, it's also \textbf{physically impossible}. Most garden forks have tines that almost as wide as a wine cork is, so there's no way you're going to be able to stick a cork on there.\footnote{It's notable that even though this ``hack'' was accompanied by a picture of a garden fork stuck in the ground, there was not a wine cork to be seen anywhere.} And even if you could, this would just become bad advice because 1) not all seeds should be planted the same width apart, and 2) how difficult is it to make a hole in your garden soil to drop a seed in there? If your soil is that hard, you've got bigger problems and all the winecorks in the world aren't going to solve them. For what it's worth, here's the entire process, in all its ridiculous glory:
\begin{quote}
\textit{Sowing your seeds just got simpler! Rather than digging individual holes all along your garden bed, enlist the help of recycled materials to turn a garden rake into a makeshift sower. Just press an old wine cork onto each prong so that it's just just} (sic) \textit{ as long as you'd want your holes deep, then push the tool into the dirt. When you pull it back up, you'll be left with a row of holes ready for seeds.}\footnote{Yes, this comes from Bob Vila's website. I know that there used to be a Cult of Bob Vila who thought he could do nothing wrong, but I beg to differ. The byline on his website is ``Tried, True, Trustworthy Home Advice'', but this bit of advice has not been tried and is definitely not true, which makes me question just how trustworthy the rest of the advice on his website is.}
\end{quote}
@ -259,19 +262,23 @@ And that's it. There are plenty more examples, but I am out of space. This has a
Sadly, a lot of this stuff comes from ``lifestyle'' sites where if something doesn't work, it really doesn't matter. You might be out a few bucks and a few hours of your time, but in the end does it really matter?\footnote{In that way, these lifestyle sites are a lot like religion: you sell a big promise, but when it fails to come about, you conveniently get to blame the user for doing it wrong.} Probably not. It is notable, however, that if you $\gamma$oogle ``brain surgery hacks'' you won't get anything that involves wine corks or toilet rolls.
\newpage
What I've learned from this:
\begin{enumerate}[noitemsep]
\item Ordinary people don't really know what is meant by the terms ``hack'' or ``hacker''.
\item Marketing people (who also don't understand what these terms mean) use them to sell stuff to people who want to feel like they are riding a trend.
\item Most things on the internet that are described as ``hacks'' are really just examples of really poor journalism.
\item Most things on the internet that are described as ``hacks'' are really just examples of really poor ``journalism''.
\end{enumerate}
I put \textit{journalism} in quotation marks, because while a lot of people might describe any sort of writing on the web as journalism, it really isn't. It's not like you need a degree and a license to call yourself a ``journalist'', alas. While one of the strengths of the web is that anyone can publish whatever they like to it, in the absence of actual, careful research\footnote{By which I do \textbf{not} mean ``find a bunch of YouTube videos and Facebook posts that confirm your own biases.'' Quite the opposite, in fact.} on the part of the writer and actual, careful fact-checking on the part of a disinterested third-party, it's little more than garbage at best, and harmful at the the worst.
\chapter{Music (\twonotes) in \LaTeX{}}
\section{Standard Notation}
I have a couple of guitars in the corner of my living room that I keep intending to dust off and play again someday. Of course, with the way my mind works, I thought I should also brush up on some music theory. Because I am an inveterate note-taker, but also have less-than-ideal penmanship, I thought I should figure out if it's possible to write music (and also guitar tablature) in LaTeX, and if so, how much work it actually is?
I have a couple of guitars in the corner of my living room that I keep intending to dust off and play again someday. Of course, with the way my mind works, I thought I should also brush up on some music theory. Because I am an inveterate note-taker, but also have less-than-ideal penmanship, I thought I should figure out if it's possible to write music (and also guitar tablature) in LaTeX, and if so, how much work it would be.
As it turns out, there are a number of packages that enable you to include music in a LaTeX document.\footnote{For much of this early research, I am highly indebted to Martin Thoma, who has an excellent introduction at \href{https://martin-thoma.com/how-to-write-music-with-latex/}{\texttt{https://martin-thoma.com/how-to-write-music-with-latex/}}.}
@ -279,7 +286,7 @@ As it turns out, there are a number of packages that enable you to include music
First, there is the \texttt{wasysym} (or Waldi Symbol font) package, which is basically a symbol font for LaTeX. It includes a lot of different symbols, including some interesting circles (\Circle{}, \leftturn{}, \rightturn{}) that I could have used on a different project had I known about this then. It's a symbol font, so when it comes to music, what it offers is rudimentary: you can add an eighth note (\eighthnote), a quarter note (\quarternote), a half note (\halfnote), a whole note (\fullnote), or two joined eighth notes (\twonotes). In math mode, you can also add a natural symbol ($\natural$), a flat symbol ($\flat$), or a sharp symbol ($\sharp$).
I have to admit, while I like this, I'm not entirely sure what it's for. It's entirely possible that it started out as one thing and ended up as another. That is certainly true of most of the projects that I've worked on.
I have to admit, while I like this, I'm not entirely sure what it's for. It's possible that it started out as one thing and ended up as another. That is certainly true of most of the projects that I've worked on.
\subsection{harmony}
@ -287,7 +294,7 @@ There is also the \texttt{harmony} package, which offers up some additional symb
\medskip
\AAcht ~~~ \Acht ~~~and~~~ \AchtBR\AchtBL ~~~ (which is actually two symbols stuck together: \AchtBR ~~ and ~~\AchtBL ) ~~~ \AcPa ~~~ and a whole lot of very tiny notes: ~~~ \Acht ~~~ \Sech ~~~ \Zwdr ~~~ and some very tiny rests: ~~~ \ViPa ~~~ \AcPa ~~~ \SePa ~~~ \ZwPa
\AAcht ~~~ \Acht ~~~and~~~ \AchtBR\AchtBL ~~~ (which is actually two symbols stuck together: $($\AchtBR ~~ and ~~\AchtBL ~ $)$ ~~~ \AcPa ~~~ and a whole lot of very tiny notes: ~~~ \Acht ~~~ \Sech ~~~ \Zwdr ~~~ and some very tiny rests: ~~~ \ViPa ~~~ \AcPa ~~~ \SePa ~~~ \ZwPa
And it also has what I believe is chord notation (although I could be—and probably am—wrong; it has been a \textit{very} long time), some of which can be quite complicated:
@ -349,7 +356,7 @@ which produces this bit of music:
\zendextract % terminate excerpt
\end{music}
What strikes me most is that most of that code is not in any way intuitive. The package is well-documented, but at 166 pages, it's going to take some work to become proficient. There's no reason you \textit{couldn't} learn this, but it's not something you're going to do overnight.
What strikes me most is that most of that code is not in any way intuitive. The package is well-documented, but at 166 pages, it's going to take some work to become proficient. There's no reason you \textit{couldn't} learn this, but it's not something you're going to do overnight. Still, I think this might be the package I am looking for.
\subsection{ABC}
@ -433,7 +440,7 @@ As it turns out, this package can also be used to produce tab. However, because
\section{Lilypond}
As it turns out, there is a free and open-source software package which is excellent at setting music—Lilypond. I downloaded this several years and one or two machines ago, and remember thinking that it was big, powerful, and somewhat complicated to learn. ``Well,'' I thought, ``we'll just pack that one along for later when we have time.''
There is also a free and open-source software package which is excellent at setting music—Lilypond. I downloaded this several years and one or two machines ago, and remember thinking that it was big, powerful, and somewhat complicated to learn. ``Well,'' I thought, ``we'll just pack that one along for later when we have time.''
It is now \textit{later} and, well, here we are. I still haven't figured out Lilypond. But it is an exceptional program, and if you are interested in typesetting music, I encourage you to check it out.
@ -496,12 +503,12 @@ spaces.
Every \LaTeX{} document has two parts:
\begin{enumerate}
\begin{enumerate}[noitemsep]
\item A \textbf{preamble} in which you declare the class and add any packages you may need, as well as set other variables such as the title and author.
\item A \textbf{document} environment which contains the actual text of the document.
\end{enumerate}
(If you are familiar with \texttt{html}, these correspond roughly to the \texttt{<head>} and \texttt{<body>} elements.)
If you are familiar with \texttt{html}, these correspond roughly to the \texttt{<head>} and \texttt{<body>} elements.
\subsection{The Preamble}
@ -515,7 +522,7 @@ The class is described between curly brackets, but you can also include several
\subsection{The \texttt{document} Environment}
Anything not in the preamble goes in the document environment, which looks like this:
Anything not in the preamble goes in the \texttt{document} environment, which looks like this:
\begin{Verbatim}[commandchars=\+\(\)]
\begin{document}
@ -557,7 +564,7 @@ For best results, stick to the hierarchical structure shown above, as this is al
\subsubsection{Enumerate}
\texttt{enumerate} is used to create numbered lists. They can be nested to create an outline. To prevent \LaTeX{} from adding a lot of space between the item numbers, pass the \texttt{[noitemsep]} to the environment.
\texttt{enumerate} is used to create numbered lists. They can be nested to create an outline. To prevent \LaTeX{} from adding a lot of space between the item numbers, add the \texttt{enumitem} package pass the \texttt{[noitemsep]} to the environment.
For example, this code:
@ -583,6 +590,7 @@ For example, this code:
\vspace{2mm} \hrule \vspace{2mm}
\paragraph{The First Punic War}
\begin{spacing}{0.7}
\begin{enumerate}[noitemsep]
\item Carthage and Rome
\begin{enumerate}
@ -597,6 +605,7 @@ For example, this code:
\end{enumerate}
\item Events Following the War
\end{enumerate}
\end{spacing}
\vspace{2mm} \hrule
\subsubsection{Itemize}
@ -627,6 +636,7 @@ As an example, we'll use the above example, but in a bulleted list:
\vspace{2mm} \hrule \vspace{2mm}
\paragraph{The First Punic War}
\begin{spacing}{0.7}
\begin{itemize}[noitemsep]
\item Carthage and Rome
\begin{itemize}
@ -641,6 +651,7 @@ As an example, we'll use the above example, but in a bulleted list:
\end{itemize}
\item Events Following the War
\end{itemize}
\end{spacing}
\vspace{2mm} \hrule \vspace{2mm}
\noindent{} You can also replace the bullets with any math symbol availabe in \LaTeX{} like this:
@ -675,7 +686,7 @@ The Pythagorean Theorem is $x^2 + y^2 = z^2$.
\noindent{} The Pythagorean Theorem is $x^2 + y^2 = z^2$. \\
This is particularly useful if you want to include Greek characters in your text, because the code for the letter is simply the letter itself. For example, \verb+&\alpha$+ renders as $\alpha$. Need capital letters?\footnote{At least for the characters where the Greek and Latin alphabets \textit{don't} share a common character} Just capitalize it: \verb+$\Gamma+ $\rightarrow \, \Gamma$
This is particularly useful if you want to include Greek characters in your text, because the code for the letter is simply the letter itself. For example, \verb+&\alpha$+ renders as $\alpha$. Need capital letters?\footnote{At least for the characters where the Greek and Latin alphabets \textit{don't} share a common character} Just capitalize it: \verb+$\Gamma$+ $\rightarrow \, \Gamma$.
Math in \LaTeX{} can also be shown in display mode, which renders the mathematics on a separate line. The entry mode begins with \verb+\[+ and ends with \verb+\]+. If we change our example up above to this:
@ -698,7 +709,7 @@ The Pythagorean Theorem is \[x^2 + y^2 = z^2\]
This doesn't come up for me every day as I use Linux, but one of my favorite things about Linux is that it's open source. That is, the source code is easily and freely available, provided you know where to look for it. This means two primary things:
\begin{enumerate}
\begin{enumerate}[noitemsep]
\item I can download the software for free, and install and use it on as many machines as I choose to.
\item I can download the source code and make whatever changes I like. I can then keep them to myself, or release those changes to the world for other people to use.
\end{enumerate}
@ -723,11 +734,11 @@ That actually makes Windows sound cheap in comparison. But is it?
\hrule
\medskip
\noindent\textbf{Oh look, it's our first diversion.}\texttt{<rant>}
\noindent\textbf{Oh look, it's our first diversion.}
\begin{multicols}{2}
We are in Late Stage Capitalism. That is, we have reached a stage of capitalism which is unsustainable on this planet alone. The entire point of capitalism is ``growth'' but when you are limited to an existence on a single planet that has no trade with other planets, that growth is limited by the amount of whatever resources that planet has. And when those resources run out—or it becomes impossible to make a profit by exploiting them—capitalism will collapse, and it will very like take billions of us with it.
\noindent{}\texttt{<rant>}\\We are in Late Stage Capitalism. That is, we have reached a stage of capitalism which is unsustainable on this planet alone. The entire point of capitalism is ``growth'' but when you are limited to an existence on a single planet that has no trade with other planets, that growth is limited by the amount of whatever resources that planet has. And when those resources run out—or it becomes impossible to make a profit by exploiting them—capitalism will collapse, and it will very like take billions of us with it.
These resources have always been \textit{physical} resources—wood, coal, oil, rare-earth elements, and the labor of the working classes to extract and process them.
@ -748,16 +759,15 @@ Order a ham sandwich on Monday, but order a turkey sandwich on Friday? That is a
\item You prefer poultry-based products later in the week.
\end{enumerate}
That is now four data points that can be sold to companies that will direct advertising at you for those items. And they will combine that data with other things they know about you (where you live, how old you are, your marriage status, your income, etc.) to come up with a list of stuff they think you'll \textit{probably} be interested in and slugs those ads in front of you.
That is now four data points that can be sold to companies that will direct advertising at you for those items. And they will combine that data with other things they know about you (where you live, how old you are, your marriage status, your income, etc.) to come up with a list of stuff they think you'll \textit{probably} be interested in and slugs those ads in front of you.\footnote{This isn't \textit{exactly} how it works, but you get the idea.}
Of course, they aren't selling that data to a local mom-and-shop sandwich shop down the road that cures their own meats and bakes their own bread according to a 100-year-old family recipe. They're selling that data to multi-million dollar corporations whose success will be built on the corpses of little mom-and-pop shops.\footnote{Oh wait, that's already happening.}
As a result (because when it comes to both hunger and money, your big huge mammalian brain depends on that little tiny reptilian bit at its core) when you think ``I could really go for a sandwich right about now'' you automatically think of the nearest evil international sandwich shop and not the local mom-and-pop sandwich shop, simply because you saw an ad for the EISS. You \textit{think} you are choosing, but you are not. Like a rat in a Skinner test, you are merely being rewarded for pushing the button that capitalism wants you to push.
As a result, when you think ``I could really go for a sandwich right about now'' you automatically think of the nearest Evil International Sandwich Shop and not the local mom-and-pop sandwich shop, simply because you saw an ad for the EISS, and when it comes to both hunger and money, your big huge mammalian brain depends on that little tiny reptilian bit at its core. You \textit{think} you are choosing, but you are not. Like a rat in a Skinner test, you are merely being rewarded for pushing the button that capitalism wants you to push.
And this is what Windows does. It gathers your data and ``shares'' it with other companies it has paid agreements with.
\noindent\texttt{</rant>}
\vspace{-1em}\begin{flushright}\texttt{</rant>}\end{flushright}
\end{multicols}
Windows may appear to be low-cost or even free when you buy that new computer, but it does have a cost—your privacy. And because advertisers use some pretty sophisticated techniques to get you to buy their stuff, there is an additional cost—your ability to truly choose for yourself.
@ -801,7 +811,7 @@ gsettings set org.nemo.desktop show-desktop-icons true
\item Installs Nemo (the \texttt{-y} flag automatically answers ``yes'' to any questions \texttt{apt} sends your way)
\item Makes Nemo the default file manager in Ubuntu
\item Disables the handling of the desktop by Nautilus
\item Enables the handling of the desktop by Nautilus
\item Enables the handling of the desktop by Nemo
\end{enumerate}
\noindent Removal is the opposite of installation:
@ -820,7 +830,7 @@ sudo apt autoremove
\item Removes any dependencies used only by Nemo
\end{enumerate}
\noindent{} As it turns out, this method allows an extremely high degree of customization while knowing very minimal code. It is possible, of course, to type that code in wrong and complete screw something up, so it's good to double-check what you enter into the terminal. The terminal is extremely literal---it doesn't make guesses about what it thinks you meant to do (which is one of the reasons I find working with Microsoft Office such a miserable experience at times), it just does whatever you tell it.
\noindent{} As it turns out, this method allows an extremely high degree of customization while knowing very minimal code. It is possible, of course, to type that code in wrong and completely screw something up, so it's good to double-check what you enter into the terminal. The terminal is extremely literal---it doesn't make guesses about what it thinks you meant to do (which is one of the reasons I find working with Microsoft Office such a miserable experience at times), it just does whatever you tell it.
\subsubsection{An old joke that describes how the terminal thinks}
@ -830,7 +840,7 @@ sudo apt autoremove
The joke, of course, arises from the fact that she never changed the object of the verb ``pick up''. What she should have said was ``If they have eggs, pick up a dozen eggs, also''.
Yes, this is how computers ``think''.
Yes, this is how computers ``think''—i.e., process inputs.
\chapter{Ubuntu 22.04 \\(and Ubuntu 24.04)}
@ -844,7 +854,7 @@ Yes, this is how computers ``think''.
\noindent{}Back in issue \#2 I wrote about what a complete and utter disaster Ubuntu 22.04 had been for me and for many other users. I'm pleased to say that most of those issues have now been taken care of through numerous updates. But it has definitely been an uphill climb that left me questioning my sanity at times.
Most notable is that I still have not been able to configure Python2 on Ubuntu 22.04. Which is \textit{not} a big deal really, as we all should have moved on to Python3 by now. (This is something that the powers that be at Python have acknowledged by deprecating Python2.) What I really needed Python2 for was PDF Booklet, which is what I use to turn all of these letter-half sized pdf documents into booklets that I can print and staple together.\footnote{What PDF Booklet does---and does well---is handle the page imposition. That is, it puts the pages in the order that you would get if you took the staples out of this zine and examined the pages---you'll note that the first sheet has pages 40 and 1 on one side and pages 2 and 39 on the other side. This pattern continues until you get to the last page which has pages 20 and 21 on one side and pages 22 and 19 on the other. Page imposition is not at all complicated, but it never fails to amaze me how many people simply can't wrap their minds around it until they see it in action. I was one of them, once.} I actually met the author of this package on SourceForge where it is hosted and he told me how to remove the Python2 dependencies, which I did. I figured out how to configure it as an installable (i.e., \texttt{deb}) package, but then I lost track of him on SourceForge and have no idea how to contribute to that project.
Most notable is that I still have not been able to configure Python2 on Ubuntu 22.04. Which is \textit{not} a big deal really, as we all should have moved on to Python3 by now. (This is something that the powers that be at Python have acknowledged by deprecating Python2.) What I really needed Python2 for was PDF Booklet, which is what I use to turn all of these letter-half sized pdf documents into booklets that I can print and staple together.\footnote{What PDF Booklet does---and does well---is handle the page imposition. That is, it puts the pages in the order that you would get if you took the staples out of this zine and examined the pages---you'll note that the first sheet has pages 40 and 1 on one side and pages 2 and 39 on the other side. This pattern continues until you get to the last page which has pages 20 and 21 on one side and pages 22 and 19 on the other. Page imposition is not at all complicated, but it never fails to amaze me how many people simply can't wrap their minds around it until they see it in action. I was one of them, once.} I actually met the author of this package on SourceForge where it is hosted and he told me how to remove the Python2 dependencies, which I did. I figured out how to configure it as an installable (i.e., a \texttt{deb}) package, but then I lost track of him on SourceForge and have no idea how to contribute to that project.
\medskip
\noindent{}\textit{…slides out soapbox…}
@ -896,7 +906,7 @@ The problem is that I always envisioned this zine as being a physical object, no
But yeah, you should definitely resize your images before including them in any document you intend to distribute digitally. (Thank you, GIMP.) You'll notice that the image of the VT100 terminal on page 5 clocks in at a very sensible 79 kb. That's more like it.
\subsection{Install \LaTeX{} Packages on Ubuntu}
\subsection{Installing \LaTeX{} Packages on Ubuntu}
\subsubsection{Method 1}
@ -974,7 +984,7 @@ Mischief managed!
\subsection{Miscellaneous Things}
\begin{enumerate}
\begin{enumerate}[noitemsep]
\item Need a little bit more control over things in a \texttt{verbatim} environment? Just add the \texttt{fancyvrb} package.
\item Need even more control than the \texttt{fancyvrb} package gives you? Try the \texttt{fvextra} package. (I used it because it very nicely breaks lines inside this environment.)
\item Notice that your footnotes are floating above the footer on some pages? Try adding \verb+\usepackage[bottom]{footmisc}+ to your preamble.
@ -1000,7 +1010,7 @@ part[]{}
It's fairly easy to \textit{remove} page numbers from the ``Part'' pages, but it not nearly as easy as it is to \textit{add} text to them. And it should be! In actual books, these pages often contain some sort of epigraph.
As it turns out, you make the text an optional argument to the \verb|\part| command by adding this to the preamble:\footnote{As described by \href{https://tex.stackexchange.com/users/1090/david-carlisle}{David Carlisle} at \href{https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/336361/how-to-write-text-after-part}{\texttt{https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/336361/how-to-write-text-after-part}}.}
As it turns out, you can make the text an optional argument to the \verb|\part| command by adding this to the preamble:\footnote{As described by \href{https://tex.stackexchange.com/users/1090/david-carlisle}{David Carlisle} at \href{https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/336361/how-to-write-text-after-part}{\texttt{https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/336361/how-to-write-text-after-part}}.}
\begin{verbatim}
\makeatletter
@ -1015,7 +1025,7 @@ As it turns out, you make the text an optional argument to the \verb|\part| comm
\verb|\let\old@endpart\@endpart| says ``take the old value for \texttt{endpart} (which is part of the \texttt{part} function) and give it this new value that I'm about to describe''.
The rest of it redefines the \texttt{endpart} to now include a \verb|\quote| environment, which is quite appropriate for an epigraph.
The rest of it (that is, the \texttt{renewcommand} part) redefines the \texttt{endpart} to now include a \verb|\quote| environment, which is quite appropriate for an epigraph.
\subsection{Adjusting the Line Spacing}
\LaTeX{} was designed to write documents; as such, its ability to fine-tune certain document parameters, such as line-spacing, is fairly limited out of the box.\footnote{As it should be! Remember, the Unix Principle is to do one thing and do it well, not to be a Swiss army knife.} But if you need something, chances are that someone else has needed it before you and created a package that will do just that. In this case, the package you need is the \texttt{setspace} package.
@ -1047,7 +1057,7 @@ I set up my version of \textit{Flatland} to have the page numbers in the header
\assignpagestyle{\chapter}{fancy}
\end{verbatim}
For what it's worth, if you want to \textit{omit} the headers and footers on a give page, just add
For what it's worth, if you want to \textit{omit} the headers and footers on a given page, just add
\begin{verbatim}
\thispagestyle{empty}
@ -1056,7 +1066,7 @@ For what it's worth, if you want to \textit{omit} the headers and footers on a g
somewhere \textit{after} the start of the page.
\subsection{A Few Little Things}
\begin{itemize}
\begin{itemize}[noitemsep]
\item Want \textsc{Small Caps}? Wrap them in \verb|textsc{ }|.
\item Need to control the gap between the header and the rest of the text? Pass the \verb|headsep| argument to the \texttt{geometry} package and set it equal to the amount of space you need (i.e., \texttt{headsep=12pt}).
\item If you want to add a degree symbol to inline text, the simplest way I've found (so far) is to just pop in and out of math mode with this: \verb|$^{\circ}$| which gives you this: $^{\circ}$

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